There are many sub branches of science that surface in the post-modern world. For instance, genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics are those in the 'Omics' group with a dynamic contribution to further science, helping humanity's health care, and improving the quality of life. Omics, another relevant field of study in biology, is, therefore, essential to learning.
What Is Omics?
Omics is an informal name given to different fields of study in biology associated with large-scale and rich data. There are various disciplines in biology, and the following are the popular sources of data and the essential highlights in those fields related to Omics: genome, exome, epigenome, transcriptome, microbiome, proteome, and metabolome. The suffix 'Omics' is added to these terms; for instance, genome plus 'omics' is genomics.
Genome is the comprehensive information of an organism because it contains data on genes and other genetic details. It uses deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequencing data sets. Genomics, therefore, is a branch of biological science that deals with studying the genome.
The exome highlights the protein-coding portions of genes known as exons. Like genomics, exomics relates to genome sequencing, mainly studying exome sequencing or exome's genome sequence. In other words, exomic generates data sets by linking its field of study to DNA and RNA sequencing data sets.
A living organism's cells express molecules such as messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). These molecules' full detail or range is a transcriptome, and transcriptomics is the study linked to mRNA and its sequencing data sets.
The Greek word 'epi' means above, and epigenome means above the genome. Epigenome has chemical compounds that change or mark the genome with instructions on what to do, where, and when. There are diverging epigenetic marks across varied cells. Epigenomics, therefore, is the study of epigenetic markings of the cells.
The microbiome focuses on the genes of bacteria, fungi, and viruses, microscopic microbes containing DNA and RNA sequencing data sets. Microbiomics is the study of the collection of microbes and their genes.
Organisms produce proteins. Cells create an array of proteins at a particular time. The complete set of the production of these proteins is known as the proteome. Proteomics is the study of the full set of proteins that organisms express.
The molecules known as metabolites comprise the organism's cells, biofluids, and tissues. These metabolites interact with the biological system, and the interaction is known as metabolome. Metabolomics is the study of the biological interactions of an organism's metabolites.
When Did Omics Begin?
Biology, as the study of life, is a broad field of expertise, and it contains various matters of inquiry such as the genome, proteome, and metabolome. These are specific concerns of bio information and molecular biology and were coined initially by Bioinformaticians and Molecular Biologists.
The suffix 'ome' began in the early 1900s and started its popularity in the late quarter of the 19th century. By then, the suffix refers to wholeness or completion. Hence, the word genome would mean an organism's complete set of genetic information. Various fields of expertise were drawn to these subjects.
As time progressed, collective efforts of Bioinformaticians and Molecular Biologists came to fruition. This time, they needed to characterize and ensure the data measurement relevant to biological molecules, their roles, and functions in the natural science process of life. Thus, the one considered a genome expert would be classified as working in the field of genomics, which involves collective technologies to understand the wholeness of an organism's genetic information.
What Is The Importance of Omics?
Life is complex. The idea ends not only in understanding what cells are as the basic units of life but down to their complex integration resulting in tissues and organs. The complexity of life resulted in various experts focusing or specializing their understanding on specific biological subjects, from the essential molecules of life to other related subjects.
The specialization process resul